Arbitration Ethereum

What the PNK token is used for

What is Kleros

A protocol for decentralized arbitration on the Ethereum blockchain.

PNK token is used for

  • Keep jurors incentivized to vote honestly.
  • Protect against 51% attacks of the protocol.

Holders of the PNK token can stake their tokens in any of the Kleros courts.

How PNK token works

Keep jurors incentivized

  • Jurors that vote with the majority of jurors – receive part of the arbitration fee.
  • Jurors who don’t vote with the majority – have part of their staked PNK transferred to jurors who did.

Resistance to 51% attack

To change the outcome of a court decision and attacker would have to:

  • Bribe more than 50% of token holders
  • Buy more than 50% of supply.
  • And by conducting the attack also devalue the token significantly.

How Kleros works

An example

  • Person A orders a service from Person B.
  • Person B delivers the service.
  • Person A is not happy with the result.
  • Person B insists the service is delivered as agreed.

Person A and Person B could now send their dispute to be solved by a Kleros court if they initiated the agreement via Kleros.

A Kleros court

A PNK holder stakes his tokens in a court. The more tokens are staked the more likely he’ll be drawn as a juror in a dispute.

  • The dispute between Person A and Person B is sent to Kleros.
  • The court draws jurors. The more PNK staked – the more likely to be drawn.
  • The juror are presented with the initial agreements and subsequent evidence by Person A and B.
  • The jurors submit their decision.
  • Fees are paid from Person A and/or Person B
  • Part of stakes are paid from jurors who did not vote with the majority to juror who did.

The fees and rewards are subject to change through governance. More on p.6 in whitepaper.

The court works with something called a schelling game. In order to receive the fee and not lose part of their stake – the jurors will vote on what they think the other jurors will vote on.

PNK token issuance

Total supply: 1B PNK (1,000,000,000 PNK)

  • 18% Team
  • 12% Kleros cooperative reserves
  • 4% Airdrops
  • 66% Juror incentive programs

In-depth here.




Similar projects

PNK token price

Arbitration Ethereum

Aragon Juror (ANJ) token explained

ANJ will merge into ANT and ANJ holders will be able to lock and convert their ANJ to 0.044 ANT or just convert at 0.015 ANT.

What is Aragon court?

Aragon Court is a service in the Aragon Ecosytem for trustless arbitration.

How does the token work?

Aragon Juror Token (ANJ) is a utility token that jurors stake in the Aragon Court in order to be selected for jury duty.

Jurors are incentivized by rewards in ANJ when voting with the majority. And slashed when not doing so.

See Aragon Court Backend for live statistics and info.

ANJ creation

  • ANJ is minted by staking Aragon Network Token (ANT) in a bonding curve (In english: by selecting amount and pressing convert at
  • A bonding curve is a smart contract that bonds two tokens together. In this case ANJ is bonded to ANT (Aragon Network Token). The smart contract is an automated market maker that provides automatic pricing and liquidity for ANJ.

Here’s a simple video explanation on bonding curves.

The rate at which ANT can be converted to ANJ and vice versa is calculated like this.

To simplify

The price starts at 0.01 ANT per ANJ and then follows a certain curve based on ANJ supply. Hence bonding curve.

The more ANJ is in circulation the more the price increases.

From Aragon wiki

The bonding curve is used to convert ANT into ANJ and back at pre-defined rates. The way the ANJ bonding curve is set up, the more ANT is sent to the bonding curve, the fewer new ANJ will be released back to the sender; the more ANJ is sent to the bonding curve, the fewer ANT will be released back to the sender.

Juror process

Read more about the entire juror and dispute process here.

Bonding curves in depth

Model how future increases and decreases in supply affect ANJ price here.

Here’s more on ANJ token launch and supply.

The actual smart contract is here.

The Bancor white paper can also be useful.

Bonding curve thread.

Token Incentive

– Earn rewards and subscription fees from voting in court cases.

Why ANJ and not just ANT?

There is a lot of reasoning around this in the Aragon forum which you can read here and here.

Some reasons could be

  • Keep incentives clear around a token (ANT might have multiple and long term effects may be hard to predict)
  • Reduce technical complexity per token.
  • Flow value back to ANT

Total Supply

The total supply can be calculated with a lot of math.

To simplify

  • If all ANT is staked in the bonding curve the maximum supply of ANJ is 350,868,849 ANJ.

The current total supply of ANJ can be viewed on Etherscan.

Token history

101,490,826 ANJ was pre-activated and the Aragon association minted an extra 10 %.

Bringing the total initial supply of ANJ to 112,767,584.

Pre-activation bonding curve price: ~$0.006 per ANJ (100 ANJ/ANT)

Read more about the presale (bonding curve) here or in the aragon wiki.

In the pre-activation announcement blog post, the Aragon Association mentioned that the Aragon Network (then controlled by a five member Governor Council) would be entitled to generate up to 10% of the pre-activation supply of ANJ for itself:

After the pre-activation period ends, the Aragon Network DAO can mint up to a 10% of the initial supply of ANJ and transfer it to the DAO. The Aragon Network DAO would then allocate those tokens to incentivize usage or onboarding jurors.

ANJ price